The Simple Wealth of Nations

In order to easily navigate the Wealth of Nations, here is an outline or map of the important ideas that are in each sentence and paragraph. Unlike other summaries which just get the most prominent idea in a paragraph, this version extracts each idea from each sentence and summarizes all similar ideas into a new sentence. A paragraph which has many ideas and supporting ideas imbued in it will therefore have many sentences.

This outline will help transform The Wealth of Nations into a manual for socio-economic science, just like when a mechanic consults a car's service manual when troubleshooting a car. This manual can address both simple and complex questions about socio-economics, especially useful during future socio-economic crises.

Simplification Notes

Pronoun Notes

Coin Conversion Based on Penny:



Introduction And Plan Of The Work

Book I: The Causes Of Productivity Improvements And The Order In Which Its Produce Is Naturally Distributed In Society

Chap 1: Division Of Labour

Chap 2: The Cause Of The Division Of Labour

Chap 3: That The Division Of Labour Is Limited By The Extent Of The Market

Chap 4: Of The Origin And Use Of Money

Chap 5a: Of The Real And Nominal Price Of Commodities, Or Of Their Price In Labour, And Their Price In Money

Chap 5b

Chap 5c

Chap 6a: Of The Component Parts Of The Price Of Commodities

Chap 6b

Chap 7a: Of The Natural And Market Price Of Commodities

Chap 7b: Of The Natural And Market Price Of Commodities

 Chap 8a: Of The Wages Of Labour

 Chap 8b

 Chap 8c

Chap 8d

Chap 8e: Of The Wages Of Labour

Chap 9a: Of The Profits Of Stock

Chap 9b: Of The Profits Of Stock

Chap 10a: Of Wages And Profit In The Different Employments Of Labour And Stock

Chap 10b: Inequalities Arising From The Nature Of The Employments

Chap 10c: Inequalities

  • Constancy of employment is also another factor

Chap 10d: Inequalities

  • Trust is another factor

Chap 10e: Inequalities

  • The law profession
  • Lotteries

Chap 10f: Inequalities

  • Apothecary (Pharmacy)

Chap 10g: Inequalities

  • Retail Trade
  • Speculation

Chap 11a: Of The Rent Of Land

Book II: The Nature, Accumulation, And Employment Of Stock


Chap 1: The Division Of Stock

Chap 2a: Money Considered As A Particular Branch Of The General Stock Of The Society, Or Of The Expence Of Maintaining The National Capital

Chap. 2b: 

Chap. 2c:

Chap 3a: The Accumulation Of Capital, Or Productive And Unproductive Labour

Chap. 3b:

Chap 4a: Stock Lent At Interest

Chap 5a: The Different Employment Of Capitals

Chap 5b:

Book III: The Different Progress Of Opulence In Different Nations

Chap 1: The Natural Progress Of Opulence

Chap 2: The Discouragement Of Agriculture After The Fall Of The Roman Empire

Chap 3: Of The Rise And Progress Of Cities And Towns, After The Fall Of The Roman Empire

Chap 4: How The Commerce Of The Towns Contributed To The Improvement Of The Country

Book IV: Of Systems Of Political Œconomy


Chap 1: Of The Principle Of The Commercial Or Mercantile System

Chap 1b:

Chap 1c:

Chap 2a: Of Restraints Upon The Importation From Foreign Countries Of Such Goods As Can Be Produced At Home

  • Retaliatory Restraints

Chap. 2c:

Chap. 3a:Of The Extraordinary Restraints Upon The Importation Of Goods Of Almost All Kinds, From Those Countries With Which The Balance Is Supposed To Be Disadvantageous.Part 1: Of The Unreasonableness Of Those Restraints Even Upon The Principles Of The Commercial System

Chap 3b:Digression Concerning Banks Of Deposit, Particularly Concerning That Of Amsterdam

Chap 3c:  Part 2: Of The Unreasonableness Of Those Extraordinary Restraints Upon Other Principles

Chap 4: Of Drawbacks

Chap 5a: Of Bounties

Chap. 5b: 

Chap. 5c: Digression Concerning The Corn Trade And Corn Laws

Chap. 5d: 

Chap. 5e:

Chap 6a: Of Treaties Of Commerce. Articles I, II, III

Chap. 6b:

Chap 7: Of Colonies: Part I: Of The Motives For Establishing New Colonies

Chap 7b: Part 2: Causes Of The Prosperity Of New Colonies

Chap. 7c: 

Chap. 7d:

Chap. 7e: 

Chap. 7f: Part 3: Of The Advantages Which Europe Has Derived From The Discovery Of America, And From That Of A Passage To The East Indies By The Cape Of Good Hope

Chap. 7g:

Chap. 7h:

Chap. 7i:

Chap. 7j

Chap 8: Conclusion Of The Mercantile System

Chap. 8b:

Chap. 8c

Chap 9: Of The Agricultural Systems, Or Of Those Systems Of Political Œconomy, Which Represent The Produce Of Land As Either The Sole Or The Principal Source Of The Revenue And Wealth Of Every Country

Chap. 9b:

Chap. 9c:

Book V: Of The Revenue Of The Sovereign Or Commonwealth

Chap 1: Of The Expences Of The Sovereign Or Commonwealth: Part 1: Of The Expence Of Defence

Chap 1b:

Chap 1c Part 2: Of The Expence Of Justice

Chap 1d: Part 3: Of The Expence Of Public Works And Public Institutions: - Article 1: Of The Public Works And Institutions For Facilitating The Commerce Of The Society And, First, Of Those Which Are Necessary For Facilitating Commerce In General

Chap. 1e: Of The Public Works And Institutions Which Are Necessary For Facilitating Particular Branches Of Commerce

Chap. 1f: Article 2: Of The Expence Of The Institutions For The Education Of Youth

Chap 1g: Article 3: Of The Expence Of The Institutions For The Instruction Of People Of All Ages

Chap 1h: Part 4: Of The Expence Of Supporting The Dignity Of The Sovereign: Conclusion

Chap 2: Of The Sources Of The General Or Public Revenue Of The Society: Part 1: Of The Funds Or Sources Of Revenue Which May Peculiarly Belong To The Sovereign Or Commonwealth

Chap. 2b: Part 2: Of Taxes

Chap. 2c: - Article 1: Taxes Upon Rent. Taxes Upon The Rent Of Land, -- Taxes Which Are Proportioned, Not To The Rent, But To The Produce Of Land, Taxes Upon The Rent Of Houses

Chap 2d: Article 2: Taxes Upon Profit, Or Upon The Revenue Arising From Stock

Chap 2e: Taxes Upon The Profit Of Particular Employments

Chap 2f: -- Appendix To Articles I And Ii Taxes Upon The Capital Value Of Land, Houses, And Stock

Chap. 2g: Article 3: Taxes Upon The Wages Of Labour, Article 4: Taxes Which, It Is Intended, Should Fall Indifferently Upon Every Different Species Of Revenue, - Capitation Taxes

Chap. 2h: Taxes Upon Consumable Commodities

Chap. 2i: 

Chap. 2j:

Chap. 2k:

Chapter 3: Of Public Debts

Chap. 3b:

Chap. 3c:

Chap. 3d

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