Chapter 10-11: An Institution adapted to œconomical Commerce

IN states that carry on an œconomical commerce, they have luckily established banks, which by their credit have formed a new species of wealth;

For the same reason, all associations of merchants, in order to carry on a particular commerce, are seldom proper in absolute governments.

A FREE port may be established in the dominions of states whose commerce is œconomical.

Chapter 12: The Freedom of Commerce

THE freedom of commerce is not a power granted to the merchants to do what they please.

In England:

Chapter 13: What destroys this Liberty

WHEREVER commerce subsists, customs are established.

Customs tax farming destroys commerce by its:

Independent of this, it destroys it even more by: In England, the customs are managed by the king’s officers.

Chapter 14: The Laws of Commerce on the Confiscation of Merchandises

THE Magna Charta of England forbids the seizing and confiscating, in case of war, the effects of foreign merchants, except by way of reprisals.

In the recent war between Spain and England, Spain made a law, which punished with death those who:

Chapter 15: Seizing Merchants

SOLON made a law, that the Athenians should no longer seize the body for civil debts.

This law is extremely good, with respect to the generality of civil §affairs.

In affairs relating to common civil contracts, the law should not permit the seizure of the person.

Chapter 16: An excellent Law

Geneva has a law which excludes from the magistracy, and even from the admittance into the great council, the children of those who have lived or died insolvent, until they have discharged their father’s debts.

  h2 | Chapter 17: A Law of Rhodes

THE inhabitants of Rhodes went further.

Chapter 18: The Judges of Commerce

XENOPHON, in his book of revenues, would have rewards given to those overseers of commerce, who dispatched the causes brought before them with the greatest expedition.

The affairs of commerce are but little susceptible of formalities.

Plato correctly says in Book 8 of his book Laws, that in a city where there is no maritime commerce, there should not be above half the number of civil laws:

Thus in a trading city, there are fewer judges, and more laws.  

Next: Chapter 19