Part 4

Chapter 1: Militias

In the beginning of society, the state's defence required no police, nor particular provision for it.

  • Accordingly, this was the practice of all nations in their primitive state.
  • Similarly among our ancestors, only those who held by 'knight’s service' were employed in the state's defence.
  • There was no occasion for discipline when the state was defended by men of honour

  • It became inconvenient for the rich to go out to war when:
  • The merchant who can make £3,000 at home will not want to go out to war.
  • When the improvement of arts and manufactures was gained the attention of the higher ranks, the state's defence naturally became the duty of the lower ranks.
  • Among a nation of hunters and shepherds, and even when a nation is advanced to agriculture, everyone goes out to war.

  • Chapter 2: Discipline

    When everyone went out, there could be no military discipline.

  • Discipline was unnecessary because their common cause was so well discerned.
  • Generally, they should be kept under such authority as to be more afraid of their general and officers than of the enemy.
  • In the recent war, 800 Prussians defended a pass a whole day against several thousands Austrians.
  • What could be the foundation of this courage?
  • It was the dread of their officers:
  • This, by the by, shows the governableness of our nature.
  • If a bold, fierce, and tyrannic adjutant is succeeded by a gentler one, the ideas of terror remain with his position.

  • Chapter 3: Standing Armies

    We have considered the laws of nature as they regard justice, police, revenue, and arms.

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    Next: Part 5