In the beginnings of society, all public offices were performed by the magistrate without any reward.
- He was fully satisfied with the eminence of his station.
- This is the case among the Tartars, Arabs, and Hottentots even to this day.
Only voluntary presents are accepted.
When government becomes so complex as to take up the whole attention of the public magistrate, he must have some reward.
- This always has a bad effect.
- But it cannot be prevented while one is willing to give and another willing to receive.
- The governors of the Roman provinces got their revenues in this way.
When applications are made, everyone must bring his present.
- If this is not given to him by the public, he will find some more dangerous way to get it.
- Few will be so generous as to exact nothing.
- The man who pays best will be best heard.
When government is a little further advanced:
Consequently, a public revenue levied.
- magazines must be provided
- ships must be built
- palaces and other public buildings must be built and maintained
The same was the case with our feudal lords.
- At first, the Romans had no revenue levied for carrying on war because the soldiers required no pay.
- In savage nations, this is always the case.
- The Athenians went to war at his own expense.
The governors of provinces made such grievous exactions from the people.
- The burden of going to war was connected with the duty of the tenant or vassal.
- Such a practice cannot last long.
- Accordingly, we find that it ceased in Rome.
- It was the great cause of that republic's dissolution.
- They alienated their affections.
- They gave no assistance to defend the state when it needed it.
Next: Part 3, Chapter 1