Chapter 15: Citizenship

The laws of different countries vary much with regard to the right of citizenship.

In England, whoever comes into a parish must promise not to be burdensome to it.

  • In Britain, one born within the kingdom is under the protection of the laws.
  • In great states, the place of birth makes a citizen.
  • Similarly, the incapacity of being a citizen is different in different countries.
  • At Rome, every stranger was hostis, as they considered all nations as their enemies, and the person who came from them as a spy.
  • The Litchfield man of war was shipwrecked on the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions.
  • When they found the advantage of exporting their own goods, and importing those of others, they would naturally allow those transported them to be safe.
  • This is the state of aliens in most European countries at present.
  • In Britain. the manner of obtaining citizenship is twofold.

    An alien is allowed to buy lands and to transmit them to posterity if subjects of Great Britain.

  • A denizen alien may inherit an estate bequeathed to him.
  • But to be capable of inheriting in all respects, an act of naturalization is necessary, by which he has a right to all the privileges of a freeborn subject.
  • When king William came to the throne, naturalized aliens were made peers.
  • Aliens are not allowed to make a will in England and Germany.
  • In Saxony, a very equitable law allowed no privileges to aliens if there was none given to their own citizens.
  • In Rome, it was the right of citizens only to make a will.

  • Chapter 16: The Rights of Subjects

    Suppose that government is founded on contract, and that these powers are entrusted to persons who grossly abuse them.

  • But we showed before that government was founded on the principles of utility and authority.
  • In a democracy, the principle of authority is proscribed.
  • In Britain both principles take place.
  • Whatever is the principle of allegiance, a right of resistance must be lawful because no authority is unlimited.
  • Absurdity of conduct may deprive an assembly of its influence as well as a private person.
  • Imprudent conduct will take away all sense of authority.
  • The folly and cruelty of the Roman emperors make the impartial reader go along with the conspiracies against them.
  • It is hard to determine what a monarch may or may not do.

  • The nature of a parliamentary right supposes that it may be defended by force, else it is no right at all.
  • James II attempted some impositions of this kind on imports.
  • The petition of right expressly appointed that the taxes shall not continue after the time determined by act of parliament.
  • James II was a Roman Catholic.

  • King James:
  • Some of the bishops remonstrating against such proceedings and were sent to the Tower.
  • Bishop John Sharp preached against popery, the religion of the king.
  • Before a religion is changed, the people's opinions must be changed.
  • King James then applied to the army.
  • By such practices:
  • They might justly have passed by the whole family.
  • Their brother was rejected because he:
  • The present family is the nearest Protestant heirs.
  • Thus King James was most justly and fairly opposed and rejected because of his encroachments on the body politic.

  • Next: Section 2: Chapter 1: Husband Wife