The Simplified Wealth of Nations of Adam Smith, Book 5, Chapter 1d: Government Expenses -- Expenses on Justice

Chapter 1d, Part 2: Expenses on Justice

44 The second duty of the sovereign is to protect every member of society from the injustice or oppression of every other member.   45 A nation of hunters has: Men who have no property can only injure one another in their persons or reputations.   46 "Civil government supposes a certain subordination."   47 Four causes naturally introduce subordination.  
  1. 48 The superiority of personal qualifications made up of:
  1. 49 The superiority of age.
  1. 50 The superiority of fortune.
  1. 51 The superiority of birth.
  52 The distinction of birth is subsequent to the inequality of fortune.   53 The distinction of birth always takes place among nations of shepherds.   54 Birth and fortune are the two circumstances which principally set one man above another.

Next: Chapter 1e: Fees on Justice