The Simplified Wealth of Nations of Adam Smith, Book 5, Chapter 1r: Ancient Educational Institutions

Chapter 1r: Ancient Educational Institutions

166 Different educational plans and institutions took place in other ages and nations. 167 In the ancient Greek republic, every free citizen was instructed in gymnastic exercises and music, under the public magistrate.   168 In ancient Rome, the exercises of the Campus Martius had the same purpose as the Gymnasium in ancient Greece.
Campus Martius
169 The masters who instructed the young people in music or military exercises were not paid or appointed by the state either in Rome or Athens.   170 In the early ages of the Greek and Roman republics, the other parts of education consisted in learning to read, write, and compute according to the math of the times.   171 In the progress of refinement, philosophy and rhetoric came into fashion.   172 At Rome, the study of the civil law was part of the education of some particular families and not of the citizens. 173 The civil and military abilities of the Greeks and Romans were at least equal to any modern nation.   174 If there are no public educational institutions, only the sciences and systems which were necessary, convenient, fashionable, and in demand would be taught.

Next: Chapter 1s: Women's education and Basic education