Adam Smith's Simplified Wealth of Nations, Book 1, Chapter 10d, Part 2: Profit and wage inequality from policy -- Apprenticehips

Chapter 10e, Part 2: Profit and wage inequality from policy -- Apprenticehips

56 The policy of Europe prevents perfect liberty and creates other more important inequalities.

57 Inequality is done in three ways:

  1. By restraining the competition to fewer than natural
  2. By increasing the competition beyond the natural
  3. By obstructing the free circulation of labour and stock from employment to employment and from place to place.
Reducing the Competition through Corporations and Apprenticeships
58 First, the policy of Europe creates a very important inequality in the employments of labour and stock by restraining the competition to a smaller number.

59 This is done primarily through the exclusive privileges of corporations.

60 The exclusive privilege of an incorporated business restrains the competition in the town where it is established, to those who are qualified or free of the trade.

61 In Sheffield, a corporation by-law states that no master cutler can have more than one apprentice at a time.

62 Seven years was the length of apprenticeships in Europe in most of the incorporated trades since ancient times.

  63 The Statute of Apprenticeship was from the 5th of Elizabeth.   64 This statute was also strictly interpreted to be limited to those trades established in England before the 5th of Elizabeth.   65 In France, the duration of apprenticeships is different in different towns and in different trades. 66 In Scotland, there is no general law regarding the duration of apprenticeships. 67 A person's own labour is the most sacred and inviolable of all his property, as it is the foundation of all of his other properties.   68 Long apprenticeships do not guarantee sufficient workmanship.   69 Long apprenticeships has no tendency to form young people to industry.   70 Apprenticeships were unknown to the ancients.  

Better Practical Education

71 Long apprenticeships are unnecessary.
Next: Chapter 10f: Part 2: Inequalities by Policy -- Corporations